Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P., Khoury, C.K., Achicanoy, H.A., et al. 2016. Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives. Nature Plants 2.

Dempewolf, H., Boute, G., Anderson, J., et al. 2017. Past and future use of wild relatives in crop breeding. Crop Science 57: 1070−1082.

Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R.J., Guarino, L., et al. 2014. Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38(4): 369−377 .

Jansky, S. H., Dempewolf, H., Camadro, E. L., et al. 2013. A case for crop wild relative preservation and use in potato. Crop Science 53(3): 746−754.

Kantar, M.B., Sosa, C.C., Khoury, C.K., et al. 2015. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Frontiers in Plant Science 6(841) .

Khoury, C.K., Greene, S., Wiersema, J., et al. 2012. An inventory of crop wild relatives of the United States. Crop Science 53(4): 1496−1508 .

Meirman, G.T. 2017. On the use of wild species in recurrent selection for enhancing the adaptability of cultural varieties of alfalfa. Biotechnology, Genetics and Plant Breeding 29−30: 48−51.

Plazas, M., Vilanova, S., Gramazio, P., et al. 2015. Interspecific hybridization between eggplant and wild relatives from different genepools. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 141(1): 34−44.

Porch, T.G., Beaver, J.S., Debouck, D.G., et al. 2013. Use of wild relatives and closely related species to adapt common bean to climate change. Agronomy 3(2): 433−461.

Prohens, J., Gramazio, P., Plazas, M., et al. 2017. Introgressiomics: a new approach for using crop wild relatives in breeding for adaptation to climate change. Euphytica 213: 158.

Syfert, M.M., Castañeda-Álvarez, N.P., Khoury, C.K., et al. 2016. Crop wild relatives of the brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena): poorly represented in genebanks and many species at risk of extinction. American Journal of Botany 103(4): 635−651.

Vincent, H., Wiersema, J., Kell, S., et al. 2013. A prioritized crop wild relative inventory to help underpin global food security. Biological Conservation 167: 265−275.


Raubach, S., Kilian, B., Dreher, K. 2020. From bits to bites: Advancement of the Germinate platform to support prebreeding informatics for crop wild relatives. Crop Science: 1–29 [Note: preliminary page numbers to be updated]

Kilian, B., Dempewolf, H., Guarino, L., et al. 2021. Crop Science special issue: Adapting agriculture to climate change: A walk on the wild side. Crop Science: 61: 32–36.


del Pozo, A., Ovalle, C., Espinoza, S., et al. 2017. Water relations and use−efficiency, plant survival and productivity of nine alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars in dryland Mediterranean conditions. Journal of Agronomy 84: 16−22.

Espinoza, S., and Barahona, V. 2017. Nueva alternativa para producción de forraje en períodos de escasez alfalfa en condiciones de secano mediterráneo. Ficha Técnica INIA Raihuen Praderas 3.

Galiolla, M., Serik, K., Sakysh, et al. 2017. Results of selection studies of alfalfa based on inbred lines. Agricultural Science and Technology A 7: 309−316.

Humphries, A.W., Ovalle, C., Hughes, S. 2021. Characterization and pre−breeding of diverse alfalfa wild relatives originating from drought−stressed environments.  Crop Science: 61: 69–88. 

Innes, L.A., Denton, M.D., Dundas, I.S., et al. 2021. The effect of ploidy number on vigor, productivity, and potential adaptation to climate change in annual Medicago species. Crop Science: 61: 89–103. 

Ovalle, C., Espinoza, S., Barahona, V., et al. 2015. Lucerne and other perennial legumes provide new options for rainfed livestock production in the Mediterranean−climate region of Chile. Ciencia Investigacion Agraria 42: 465−478.

Wang, Y., Yu, L., Li, J., Sun, J. and Xie, J. 2016. Effects of chilling stress on the root characteristics of 5 alfalfa varieties. Acta Agrestia Sinica 1: 101−106.

Yun−tao, W., Jingzhu, L., Lin-qing, Y., et al. 2017. The morphology indexes of different alfalfa cultivars in northwest of HeBei Heilongjiang. Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine 8: 175−176, 298−299.


Rehman, S., Amouzoune, M., Hiddar, H., et al. 2021. Traits discovery in Hordeum vulgare sbsp. spontaneum accessions and in lines derived from interspecific crosses with wild Hordeum species for enhancing barley breeding efforts. Crop Science: 61: 219–233.


Eyland, D., Breton, C., Sardos, J., et al. 2021. Filling the gaps in gene banks: Collecting, characterizing, and phenotyping wild banana relatives of Papua New Guinea. Crop Science: 61: 137–149. 


Rahim, M., A.T.M., Mannan, M. and Simon P. 2016. Screening of carrot wild relatives in warm, dry and saline field conditions in respect of roots and seed production. BAU Research Progress.

Simon, P.W., Rolling, W.R., Senalik, D., et al. 2021. Wild carrot diversity for new sources of abiotic stress tolerance to strengthen vegetable breeding in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Crop Science: 61: 163–176. 


Berger, J., Abbo, S. and Turner, N.C. 2013. Ecogeography of annual wild Cicer species: The poor state of the world collection. Crop Science 43: 1076–1090.

Sharma, S., Lavale, S.A., Nimje, C., et al. 2020. Characterization of cultivated and annual wild Cicer species for seed protein and mineral concentrations, and identification of promising accessions for chickpea improvement. Crop Science: 61: 305–319.

Von Wettberg, E., Chang, P., Greenspan, A., et al. 2018. Ecology and community genomics of an important crop wild relative as a prelude to agricultural innovation. Nature Communications 9(649).

Durum wheat

Aberkane, H., Amri, A., Belkadi, B., et al. 2021. Evaluation of durum wheat lines derived from interspecific crosses under drought and heat stress. Crop Science: 61: 119–136. 

El Haddad, N., Kabbaj, H., Zaïm, M., et al. 2021. Crop wild relatives in durum wheat breeding: Drift or thrift? Crop Science: 61:37–54. 

Meryem Zaïma, Khaoula El Hassounia, Fernanda Gambac, et al. 2017. Wide crosses of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) reveal good disease resistance, yield stability, and industrial quality across Mediterranean sites. Field Crops Research 214: 219–227.


Acquadro, A., Barchi, L., Gramazio, P., et al. 2017. Coding SNPs analysis highlights genetic relationships and evolution pattern in eggplant complexes. PLoS One 12: 7.

Fita, A., Fioruci, F., Plazas, M., Rodríguez−Burruezo, A. et al. 2015. Drought tolerance among accessions of eggplant and related species. Bulletin USAVM Horticulture 72(2).

Gramazio, P., Prohens, J., Borràs, D., et al. 2017. Comparison of transcriptome−derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for genetic fingerprinting, diversity evaluation, and establishment of relationships in eggplants. Euphytica: 213, 264.

Gramazio, P., Prohens, J., Plazas, M., et al. 2017. Development and genetic characterization of advanced backcross materials and an introgression line population of Solanum incanum in a S. melongena background. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1477.

Kaushik, P., Gramazio, P., Vilanova, S., et al. 2017. Phenolics content, fruit flesh colour and browning in cultivated eggplant, wild relatives and interspecific hybrids and implications for fruit quality breeding. Food Research International 102: 392−401.

Kaushik, P., Prohens, J., Vilanova, S., et al. 2016. Phenotyping of eggplant wild relatives and interspecific hybrids with conventional and phenomic descriptors provide insight for their potential utilization in breeding. Frontiers in Plant Science 7(677).

Kouassi, A.B., Kouassi, K.B.A., Sylla, Z., et al. 2021. Genetic parameters of drought tolerance for agromorphological traits in eggplant, wild relatives, and interspecific hybrids. Crop Science: 61: 55–68. 

Kouassi, B., Prohens, J., Gramazio, P., et al. 2016. Development of backcross generations and new interspecific hybrid combinations for introgression breeding in eggplant (Solanum melongena). Scientia Horticulturae 213: 199−207.

Prohens, J., Mangino, G., Plazas, M., et al. 2017. Development of a collection of introgression lines of Solanum incanum, a drought tolerant wild relative, in the genetic background of eggplant. Book of Abstracts of the Joint Congress SEBC−SEBD−SEG: 40−41.

Rakha, M., Namisy, A., Chen, J.−R., et al. 2020. Development of Interspecific Hybrids between a Cultivated Eggplant Resistant to Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) and Eggplant Wild Relatives for the Development of Rootstocks. Plants 9(10): 1405.

Ranil, R.G.H., Prohens, J., Aubriot, X., et al. 2017. Solanum insanum L. (subgenus Leptostemonum Bitter, Solanaceae), the neglected wild progenitor of eggplant (S. melongena L.): a review of taxonomy, characteristics and uses aimed at its enhancement for improved eggplant breeding. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 65(7): 1707–1722.

Taher, D., Solberg, S.Ø., Prohens, J., et al. 2017. World Vegetable Center eggplant collection: origin, composition, seed dissemination and utilization in breeding. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1484.

Finger millet

Dida, Mathews M., Oduori, C.A., Manthi, S.J., et al., 2021. Novel sources of resistance to blast disease in finger millet. Crop Science: 61: 250–262.

Gupta, S.M., Arora, S., Mirza, N., et al. 2017. Finger millet: A “certain” crop for an “uncertain” future and a solution to food insecurity and hidden hunger under stressful environments. Frontiers in Plant Science 8.


Abdallah, F., Kumar, S., Amri, A., et al. 2021. Wild Lathyrus species as a great source of resistance for introgression into cultivated grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) against broomrape weeds (Orobanche crenata Forsk. and Orobanche foetida Poir.). Crop Science: 61: 263–276. 


Gorim, L.Y. and Vandenberg, A. 2017. Evaluation of wild lentil species as genetic resources to improve drought tolerance in cultivated lentil. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1129.

Gorim, L.Y. and Vandenberg, A. 2017. Preliminary evaluation of wild lentil species as genetic resources to improve drought tolerance in cultivated lentil. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1129.

Gorim, L.Y. and Vandenberg, A. 2017. Root traits, nodulation and root distribution in soil for five wild lentil species and Lens culinaris (Medik.) grown under well−watered conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 1632.

Gorim, L.Y., Rabani, E.M., Barlow, B., et al. 2018. Are artificial media valid for root analysis? A case study comparing root traits of five lentil genotypes in artificial media versus soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Health 2: 1.

Yuan, H.Y., Saha, S., Vandenberg, A., Bett, K.E. 2017. Flowering and growth responses of cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm towards the differences in red to far−red ratio and photosynthetically active radiation. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 386.


Kosterin, O.E. 2016. Prospects of the use of wild relatives for pea breeding. Russian Journal of Genetics, Applied Research 6(3): 233−243.

Pearl Millet

Sharma, S., Sharma, R., Govindaraj, M., et al. 2021. Harnessing wild relatives of pearl millet for germplasm enhancement: Challenges and opportunities. Crop Science: 61: 177–200.

Sharma, S., Sharma, R., Pujar, M., et al. 2020. Use of wild Pennisetum species for improving biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in pearl millet. Crop Science: 61: 289–304.


Khoury, C.K., Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P., Achicanoy, H.A., et al. 2015. Crop wild relatives of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]: Distributions, ex situ conservation status, and potential genetic resources for abiotic stress tolerance. Biological Conservation 184: 259−270.

Sharma, S., Paul, PJ., Sameer Kumar, CV., Nimje, C. 2020. Utilizing Wild Cajanus platycarpus, a Tertiary Genepool Species for Enriching Variability in the Primary Genepool for Pigeonpea Improvement. Frontier in Plant Science 11: 1055.


Castañeda−Álvarez, N.P., de Haan, S., Juárez, H., et al. 2015. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (Solanum L. Section Petota). PLoS One 10(4): e0122599.

Ordonez, B., Orillo, M. and Bonierbale, M. 2016. Manual biologia reproductiva y citologica de la papa. Lima (Perú). Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP) ISBN 978‐92‐9060‐477‐8. 2a ed.: 65.


Arbelaez, J.D., Moreno, L.T., Singh, N., et al. 2015. Development and GBS−genotyping of Introgression Lines (ILs) using two wild species of rice, O. meridionalis and O. rufipogon, in a common recurrent parent, O. sativa cv. Curinga. Molecular Breeding 35(2): 81.

Kim, H., Jung, J., Singh, N., Greenberg, A., et al. 2017. Population dynamics among six major groups of the Oryza rufipogon species complex, wild relative of cultivated Asian rice.

Tin, H.Q., Loi, N.H., Bjornstad, Å., et al. 2021. Participatory selection of CWR-derived salt-tolerant rice lines adapted to the coastal zone of the Mekong Delta. Crop Science: 61: 277–288. 

Tin, H.Q., Loi, N.H., Labarosa, S.J.E., et al., 2021. Phenotypic response of farmer−selected CWR−derived rice lines to salt stress in the Mekong Delta. Crop Science: 61: 201–208.


Mace, E.S., Cruickshank, A.W., Tao, Y., et al. 2021. A global resource for exploring and exploiting genetic variation in sorghum crop wild relatives. Crop Science: 61: 150–162. 

Tao Y., Zhao X., Mace E., Henry R., Jordan D. 2019. Exploring and exploiting pan−genomics for crop improvement. Molecular Plant.

Ochieng, G., Ngugi, K., Wamalwa, L.N., et al. 2021.Novel sources of drought tolerance from landraces and wild sorghum relatives. Crop Science: 61: 104–1118. 


Baute, G.J., Kane, N.C., Grassa, C., et al. 2015. Genome scans reveal candidate domestication and improvement genes in cultivated sunflower, as well as post−domestication introgression with wild relatives. New Phytologist 206(2): 830−838.


Guerrero−Zurita F., Ramírez DA., Rinza J., et al. 2020. Potential Short-Term Memory Induction as a Promising Method for Increasing Drought Tolerance in Sweetpotato Crop Wild Relatives [Ipomoea series Batatas (Choisy) D. F. Austin]. Frontiers in Plant Science 11: 567507.

Khoury, C.K., Heider, B., Castañeda-Álvarez, N.P., et al. 2015. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas]. Frontiers in Plant Science 6(251).

Nhanala, S. E. C., Yencho, G. C. 2021. Assessment of the potential of wild Ipomoea spp. for the improvement of drought tolerance in cultivated sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Crop Science 61: 234–249. 

Wu, S. et al. 2018. Genome sequences of two diploid. Nature Communications 9(4580).



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